Bina Refinery has chosen state-of-the-art technologies from reputed licensors based on the Refinery configuration.
The Refining Process
Crude Oil comprises complex chains of Hydrocarbons having Carbon and Hydrogen molecules and it also contains impurities like Sulphur/Nitrogen/Oxygen compounds, Metals, etc. Crude are Paraffinic, Naphthenic or Aromatic types depending on their composition of Hydrocarbons.
The Refinery processes are classified into:
Primary Processing Units
The Crude & Vacuum Distillation Unit is the Primary Processing Unit in an Oil Refinery wherein Crude Oil is separated into various products depending on the relative volatility of the Hydrocarbon components.
Secondary Processing Units
Secondary Processing Units receive their feeds from the Crude / Vacuum Unit and upgrade it to value added products. Secondary Processing Units in BORL are:
Full Conversion Two Stage Hydrocracker Unit
Continuous Catalytic Regeneration (CCR) & Isomerization (PENEX) Unit
Delayed Coker unit
Treating Units play an important role in removing impurities like Sulphur, Nitrogen and Metals from the products thereby meeting the stipulated product specifications. The important Treating Units in BORL are:
ATF Merox Unit
Diesel Hydrotreater Unit (this unit is integrated with Hydrocracker)
Sulphur Recovery Unit
Crude & Vacuum Distillation Unit (CDU/VDU)
The purpose of this unit is to fractionate crude oil into specific boiling range streams suitable for blending into final refined products or as feedstock to downstream processing units. Products produced from this unit are Gas, LPG, Naphtha, Kerosene / ATF and Diesel components. Remaining residue as Reduced Crude Oil (RCO) from CDU is a feed to Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU) for further distillation under vacuum conditions. Products from VDU are Vacuum Diesel which forms a part of Diesel product whereas Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) forms a feed to Full Conversion Hydrocracker (FCHC). Vacuum residue (VR) is a feed to Delayed Coker Unit (DCU).
CDU/VDU is designed by M/s Engineers India Ltd.
Integrated Full Conversion Hydrocracker (FCHC) & Diesel Hydrotreater (DHT)
The primary objective of the FCHC is to maximize diesel production with sulphur content less than 10 ppm and Cetane Index more than 51. The DHT desulphurises the high sulphur diesel produced from the CDU/VDU & DCU and also improves the cetane no. of these streams to meet Euro III / IV quality norms.
BORL has two stage Hydrocracker integrated with Diesel Hydrotreater for saving capital cost and this kind of integrated unit is first of its kind in India. Process involves Hydrocracking of VGO and Heavy Coker Gas Oil (HCGO) at high pressure and temperature in presence of suitable catalyst and Hydrogen. Technology licensor for this state-of-art unit is M/s Chevron, which is a reputed licensor in this field.
Delayed Coker Unit (DCU)
Delayed Coker process is based on severe thermal cracking of VR to produce distillate products and petroleum coke. Feed to DCU is heated and fed to Coke drums, the hot feed cracks to form coke and vapours, vapours leave the coke drum which are fractionated to get cracked products like Gas, LPG, Naphtha, Lt. Coker Gas Oil (LCGO) and HCGO. These off-spec products are further processed in secondary processing unit like FCHC & DHT for making on spec product.
This technology is provided by M/s ABB-Lummus. Coke will be utilized for steam and power generation in Captive Power Plant which is CFBC (Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion) type Boiler based power plant.
Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit / Naphtha Splitter Unit (NHT / NSU)
Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit (NHT) process involves catalytic treatment of naphtha to remove sulphur and other impurities from naphtha. NSU (Naphtha Splitter Unit) is required for splitting full range naphtha to Lt. & Hy. Naphtha. The light naphtha is feed to PENEX unit and Hydrogen unit and whereas heavy naphtha is a feed to CCR (Continuous Catalyst Regeneration) unit.
NHT process is Licensed by M/s UOP.
Continuous Catalyst Regeneration & Reforming Unit (CCR)
This unit produces high octane MS component from Hy naphtha to finally produce high quality unleaded petrol.
Hydro treated Hy. naphtha from NHT is combined with recycle gas and sent to a series of reactors. Reactor effluent is separated into Gas, LPG and Reformate streams. Continuous circulation of regenerated catalyst helps maintain optimum catalyst performance at high severity conditions for long on-stream periods of reforming operations.
CCR Process is licensed by M/s UOP.
Naphtha Isomerization Unit (PENEX)
Hydro treated light naphtha from NHT unit along with make up gas from CCR unit is fed into PENEX after pre treatment. This unit isomerises normal C5 and C6 paraffin to their respective isomer, which have got higher-octane value with no Aromatics, Benzene and Olefins. The isomerate product when blended with reformate produces MS meeting Euro III/IV specifications.
PENEX Process is licensed by M/s UOP
Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU)
Hydrogen Generation Unit Licensed by M/s Technip Benelux B.V produces Hydrogen by steam reforming of naphtha. Hydrogen purity of 99.9 percent is achieved through the UOP Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Unit.
LPG Treating Units
The primary purpose of the LPG treating units is to remove mercaptans so that final product meets sulphur and corrosion specifications. Sulphur present in LPG in the form of mercaptans is removed by catalytic oxidation of mercaptans. The process is used for LPG sweetening.
Unit is designed by M/s Engineers India Ltd.
The objective of this unit is to convert Mercaptans & Sulphur compounds present as impurities in ATF to disulphide oils. The process converts the mercaptans to disulphide oils by their oxidation in presence of suitable catalyst.
Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) and Tail Gas Treating Unit (TGTU)
The main objective of Sulphur Recover Unit (SRU) is to remove and recover the Sulphur from Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) rich gas stream which is formed in various secondary processing units like HCU/DHT/NHT.
H2S rich gas is the feed to SRU. SRU technology is based on Claus process. Sulphur compounds are further treated in Tail Gas Treating Unit (TGTU) in presence of suitable catalyst and are converted to H2S which is fed back to SRU for Sulphur recovery. Over all Sulphur recovery achieved by both the unit in combination is 99.9 %.
SRU is licensed by M/s Engineers India Ltd and TGTU is licensed by M/s SIIRTEC NIGI (SINI)